Children Dataset

Children Dataset is a collection of data on important child rights issues in Pakistan that can be used for a variety of purposes. The Children Dataset has been compiled from a variety of sources, mainly from government agencies, UN and civil society organisations using a robust data collection methodology.

Education

Literacy Rate

Literacy Rate (10 Years and Above)-Pakistan
Province/Area Male Female Total (%)

Year 2019-20

Pakistan 70 50 60
Rural 64 39 52
Urban 79 67 74

Source: PSLM Survey 2019-20, Bureau of Statistics

Analysis

According to the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) district level Survey 2019-20, the literacy rate of population (10 years and above) is stagnant at 60 percent in 2019-20 since 2014-15. The literacy rate is higher in urban areas (74 percent) than in rural areas (52 percent).

Literacy Rate (10 Years and Above)-Provincial
Province Male Female Total (%)
Year 2019-20
Punjab 72 57 64
Rural 67 48 57
Urban 80 72 76
Sindh 68 47 58
Rural 53 23 39
Urban 79 66 73
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa 71 35 53
Rural 69 31 50
Urban 80 53 67
Balochistan 61 29 46
Rural 55 22 40
Urban 76 47 63

Source: PSLM Survey 2019-20, Bureau of Statistics

Analysis

Province wise analysis suggests that Punjab has the highest literacy rate, with 64 percent followed by Sindh with 58 percent, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with 53 percent and Balochistan with 46 percent.

Primary Enrolment Rates

Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) for Year 2019-20
National and Provincial GER (Age 6-10 yrs) at Primary Level (Classes 1-5)
Province/Area Male Female Total
Pakistan 89 78 84
Punjab 93 90 92
Sindh 78 62 71
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa 96 73 85
Balochistan 84 56 72

Source: PSLM District Level Survey 2019-20, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics

Net Enrolment Rates (NER) for Year 2019-20
National and Provincial NER (Age 6-10 yrs) at Primary Level (Classes 1-5) (%)
Province/Area Male Female Total
Pakistan 68 60 64
Punjab 71 89 70
Sindh 60 49 55
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa 72 56 65
Balochistan 65 45 56

Source: PSLM District Level Survey 2019-20, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics

Government Expenditures on Education

Yearly Comparison of Educational Expenditures as % of GDP
Expenditures on Education
Year As % of GDP
2015-16 2.3%
2016-17 2.2%
2017-18 2.4%
2018-19 2.3%
2019-20 (P) 1.5%

P: Provisional

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2020-21

Analysis

According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2020-21, the education related expenditures witnessed a decline in Year 2020 due to closure of educational institutes amid country-wide lockdown and decrease in current expenditures (other than salaries) due to COVID-19 Pandemic. Furthermore, as a result of COVID-19 crisis, there was an increase in expenditure of other Social Sectors i.e., health, natural calamities & other disasters, Benazir Income Support Programme, Pakistan Bait-ul-Maal etc.

National and Provincial Government Expenditures on Education in YEAR 2018-19 and 2019-20
Year 2018-19 (in Millions)
Federal Punjab Sindh KP Balochistan Pakistan
Current 103,787 339,402 153,492 132,516 49,298 778,495
Development 21,780 32,413 9,110 20,195 6,029 89,527
Total 125,567 371,815 162,602 152,711 55,327 868,022
Year 2019-20 (P) (in Millions)
Current 83,266 182,616 165,028 28,161 53,640 512,711
Development 31,300 35,378 5,427 18,088 8,111 98,304
Total 114,566 217,994 170,455 46,249 61,751 611,015

P: Provisional

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2020-21

Out-of-School-Children

Out-of-school children are children aged 5 to 16 who have never attended school and children who attended school and then dropped out.

Total Out of School Children in Pakistan
Total Out of School Children in Pakistan 32%
Rural 37%
Urban 22%
Drop-out 5.7%
Never been to School 25.8%
PSLM 2019-20- Govt. of Pakistan
Analysis

According to PSLM 2019-20, the proportion of children not attending school is 32 percent nationally in 2019-20. A regional comparison shows that the proportion of children out of school is higher in rural areas, at 37 percent, than in urban areas, at 22 percent. Punjab has the lowest number of children out of school at 24 percent, while Balochistan has the highest at 47 percent.

Health

Health Indicators

Health Indicators of Pakistan Year 2019
Maternal mortality Ratio (per 100,000 births)* 189
Neonatal mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) 41.2
Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) 55.7
Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000) 67.2
Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people) 263
Incidence of HIV (per 1,000 uninfected population) 0.12
Life expectancy at birth, (years) 67.3
Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total) (Year 2020) 58
Contraceptive prevalence, any methods (% of women ages 15-49) 34

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2020-21

Federal and Provincial Governments Health Expenditure

Fiscal Years Public Sector Expenditure (Federal and Provincial) Rs million Health Expenditure as % of GDP
Current Expenditure Development Expenditure Total Health Expenditures
2011-12 104,284 29,898 134,182 0.7
2012-13 129,421 31,781 161,202 0.6
2013-14 146,082 55,904 201,986 0.7
2014-15 165,959 65,213 231,172 0.7
2015-16 192,704 75,249 267,953 0.9
2016-17 229,957 99,005 328,962 1
2017-18 329,033 87,434 416,467 1.2
2018-19 363,154 58,624 421,778 1.1
2019-20 (P) 406,011 76,254 482,265 1.2

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2020-21

Child Protection

Child Sexual Abuse

Cruel Numbers- Sahil
Child Sexual Abuse Cases in Pakistan Percentage
Year Number of Reported Cases Female Male
2022 4253 55 45
2021 3852 54 46
2020 2960 51 49
2019 2846 54 46
2018 3832 55 45
2017 3445 60 40
Source: Cruel Numbers- Sahil

Child Marriage/Early Marriage

Analysis

According to the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2017-18, 3.6 percent of girls under 15 are married and 18.3 percent of girls under 18 are married in Pakistan. The PDHS 2017-18 survey also shows that 8 percent of adolescent women aged 15-19 in Pakistan are already mothers or pregnant with their first child. Three out of ten Pakistani women are married by the age of 18.

Missing and Abducted Children

Missing and Abducted Children Released by ZARRA (October 2021 to June 2022)

PROVINCE WISE CASES OF MISSING AND ABDUCTED CHILDREN %
Punjab 783 63.04
Sindh 205 16.51
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 176 14.17
Islamabad 43 3.46
Balochistan 35 2.82
Total 1242
ZARRA 2022

Analysis

According to the information, a total of 1242 cases of missing and abducted persons were reported across Pakistan. Most cases were reported in Punjab (63%), followed by Sindh (16.5%). A total of 783 cases of missing and abducted children were reported in Punjab alone. In Punjab, the number of cases is higher in Lahore city (124), which has comparatively high mobility and educational resources, meaning citizens are better informed about reporting a missing child through the Zainab Alert App and Helpline 1099. Broken down by age, the number of missing children aged 11-18 is higher in Sindh. KP province ranks third after Punjab and Sindh with 176 cases.

Read the Full report.

Juvenile Justice

Punjab
Number of Juveniles Convicted/Undertrial and Condemned Confined in Punjab Jails

(as on 15.03.2022)

Undertrials Convicts Condemned Total Male Total Female Grand Total
Male Female Male Female Male Female
523 0 122 0 0 0 645 0 645
Source: Prison Department, Govt. of Punjab (2022)
Analysis

The total number of convicted and undertrial juveniles imprisoned in various borstal institutes and jails of Punjab province was 645 as on 15 March 2022 (Prisons Department, Govt. of Punjab). Out of the total number of juvenile offenders, 81% (523) juveniles were on trial (under trial) and 19% were convicted juvenile offenders. All juvenile offenders were male and no female was confined in any jail of Punjab. There were also no condemned juvenile offenders, male and female, in any jail of Punjab.

Name of Jails for Convicted Juveniles

(as on 15.03.2022)

B.I.& Jail Bahawalpur 74
Central Jail Faisalabad 30
Others 18
Total 122
Source: Prison Department, Govt. of Punjab (2022)
Analysis

The majority of convicted juvenile offenders were imprisoned in B.I. & Jail Bahawalpur (61%) and Central Jail Faisalabad (25%).  

Name of Jails for Undertrial Juveniles

(as on 15.03.2022)

Central Jail Rawalpindi 64
Central Jail Sheikhhupura 47
Central Jail Gujranwala 46
Central Jail Faisalabad 34
District Jail Lahore 34
B.I.& Jail Bahawalpur 29
District Jail Toba Tek Singh 21
Other 35 Jails 248
Total 523
Source: Prison Department, Govt. of Punjab (2022)
Analysis

In comparison, undertrail juveniles were kept in 42 jails of Punjab. The highest number of undertrails were reported in Central Jail Rawalpindi (12%), followed by Central Jail Sheikhpura (9%), Central Jail Gujranwala (9%), Central Jail Faisalabad (7%), District Jail Lahore (7%),B.I.& Jail Bahawalpur (6%), District Jail Toba Tek Singh (4%) and the remaining 47% were spread over 35 different jails of Punjab province.

Nature of Crimes of Convicted Juveniles

(as on 15.03.2022)

Name of Crime Section Male Female
Murder 302 PPC 32 0
Unnatural Offence 377 PPC 32 0
Rape 375/376 PPC 30 0
Control of Narcotics Substance Act, 1997 CNSA, 1997 9(c) 2 0
Kidnapping and Abduction 363/364/365/356-A/366/367/369 PPC 2 0
Theft 380/381/381-A/382/411/457/454/367-A 2 0
Anti Terrorism Act 1997 7 ATA 1 0
Civil Prisoner Family Degree Ijra 1 0
Death By Negligence 303/304/308/312/319/321/322 PPC 1 0
Miscellaneous 19 0
Total 122 0
Source: Prison Department, Govt. of Punjab (2022)
Analysis

The majority of convicted juvenile offenders are sentenced under three crimes: Murder (26%), unnatural offence (26%) and rape (25%). 

Nature of Crimes of Undertrials Juveniles

(as on 15.03.2022)

Name of Crime Section Male Female
Murder 302 PPC 106 0
Attempt to Murder 324 PPC 19 0
Unnatural Offence 377 PPC 87 0
Robbery/Dacoity 392/394/395/396 PPC 56 0
Rape 375/376 PPC 69 0
Control of Narcotics Substance Act, 1997 CNSA, 1997 9(b) (c) 25 0
Kidnapping and Abduction 363/364/365/356-A/366/367/369 PPC 8 0
Theft 379/380/381/381-A/382/411/457/454/367-A 82 0
Causing Hurt with blunt/sharp weapon 337(A-N)PPC 8 0
Anti Terrorism Act 1997 7 ATA 4 0
Zina Sec 10(i)(ii)(iii) Zina Ord, 79 4 0
Breach of Peace 107/151 Cr.Pc 6 0
Army Act 38(1) 3 0
Miscellaneous/Others 46 0
TOTAL POPULATION 523 0
Source: Prison Department, Govt. of Punjab (2022)
Analysis

The majority of undertrials were booked under the offence of murder (20%), attempt to murder (4%), un-natural offence (17%), robbery/dacoirty (11%), rape (13%), Control of Narcotics Substance Act 1997 (5%), theft (16%) and other crimes(9%).

Oversight and Monitoring

Complaints Handling

NCRC Complaint Handling (March 2020- Feb 2023)

 

 

 

Objective

The objective of this portal is to provide authentic information on the issues and challenges faced by children in Pakistan, especially to key stakeholders on the impact and magnitude of the problem, institutional arrangements and recommendations for action. >>more

Work-in-Progress

“The State of Children in Pakistan” is work in progress and the beta version has been released for testing purposes to get feedback on structure, layout and content.

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