Recommendation- Child Health

Concluding Observations by Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)  

Concluding Observations on 5th Periodic Report adopted by the Committee on the Rights of the Child at its seventy-second session (17 May-3 June 2016).

Right to life, survival and development

Section 23. The Committee urges the State party to take immediate measures to:

(b) Prevent and combat malnutrition, especially among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of children, such as those living in poverty, including Dalit children

(c) Ensure that, in cases of drought, children are provided with immediate access to aid, including sufficient food and water, and closely monitor the delivery of such aid in order to avoid possible misappropriations

(d) Provide easy access to quality maternal and neonatal care, especially in remote rural areas

(e) Investigate, prosecute and punish perpetrators of infanticide, and those who have instigated such crimes, with sanctions commensurate with the gravity of the crime and raise public awareness of the need to report such crimes to the police.

Health and Health Services

Section 48. In the light of its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, and taking note of targets 3.2 and 3.8 of the Sustainable Development Goals, the Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Increase budget allocations for health and expand the provision of quality health-care services, especially in rural areas

(b) Take all necessary measures to significantly reduce the mortality rate among children under 5 years of age, to at least as low as 25 deaths per 1,000 live births, and neonatal mortality, to at least as low as 12 deaths per 1,000 live births, by 2030; 

(c) Provide all children from birth to 5 years of age with a package of health services, which includes immunisation against diseases such as polio and measles, throughout the country, especially in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and raise awareness in communities about the importance of vaccinations;

(d) Ensure that children throughout the country have access to adequate health facilities and quality medical services provided by trained medical professionals, paying particular attention to the children of internally displaced persons; 

(e) Provide, as a matter of highest priority, access to water and sanitation and develop nutrition programmes to reduce problems such as stunted growth or other forms of malnutrition and implement an essential nutrition package in all health facilities, in particular targeting children affected by severe malnutrition; 

(f) Seek financial and technical assistance from bodies such as the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization, among others, in this regard. 

Mental Health

Section 50. The Committee recommends that the State party take urgent action to prevent suicide among children, including by increasing the provision of psychological counselling services and the number of social workers in schools and communities, and to ensure that all professionals working with children are adequately trained to identify and address early suicidal tendencies and mental health problems. The Committee also recommends that the State party collect data and adopt a comprehensive national child mental health policy, ensuring that mental health promotion, counselling, prevention of mental health disorders in primary health care, schools and communities and child-friendly mental health services are integral features of the policy.

Adolescent Health

Section 52. In the light of its general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescent health and  development in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Adopt a comprehensive sexual and reproductive health policy for  adolescents and ensure that sexual and reproductive health education is part of the  mandatory school curriculum and is aimed at adolescent girls and boys, paying  special attention to preventing early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections;

(b) Review its legislation with a view to ensuring that children, including  unmarried girls, have access to contraception, safe abortion and post-abortion care  services, and that the views of girls should always heard and respected in abortionrelated decisions;

(c) Develop and implement a policy to protect the rights of pregnant  teenagers, adolescent mothers and their children and to combat discrimination against them.


Section 54. In the light of its general comment No. 3 (2003) on HIV/AIDS and the rights of the child, the Committee recommends that the State party take measures to raise awareness among the general population, and in particular children, about HIV/AIDS and carry out a study of the risks and dynamics among children, especially among children in marginalised and disadvantaged situations. It also recommends that the State party put in place measures to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS and provide antiretroviral drugs to affected pregnant women. To this effect, the Committee recommends that the State party seek technical assistance from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).

Drugs and Substance Abuse

Section 56. The Committee recommends that the State party take appropriate measures to address the issue of drug abuse among children including by, providing children and  adolescents with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse — including tobacco and alcohol abuse — and by  developing accessible and youth-friendly drug-dependence treatment and harm reduction services. It also recommends that the State party adopt standards  applicable to rehabilitation centres, especially concerning the treatment of persons below the age of 18 years.

Environmental Health

Section 58.The Committee recommends that the State party conduct an assessment of the  effects of polluted air, water and soil on children’s health, as a basis for designing a  well-resourced strategy to remedy the situation, and regulate the maximum concentrations of air and water pollutants.

General Recommendations


  • Encourage children to learn about healthy eating habits, personal hygiene, and the importance of physical activity through school curriculum and community programs.
  • Promote engagement in sports, outdoor activities, and games to encourage physical fitness and overall well-being.
  •  Encourage children to report any signs of illness or discomfort to parents or caregivers promptly, emphasizing the importance of early intervention and seeking medical attention when needed.


  • Ensure children have access to a balanced diet rich in essential nutrients, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products.
  • Encourage exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continued breastfeeding along with complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond.
  • Schedule regular check-ups and vaccinations for children, and seek medical advice promptly for any health concerns or developmental delays.
  • Teach children proper handwashing techniques, personal hygiene practices, and the importance of maintaining a clean environment to prevent the spread of infections.


  • Advocate for increased budget allocation to the healthcare sector, including child health programs, nutrition initiatives, and immunization campaigns. 
  • Allocation of a minimum of five percent of GDP for health expenditure.
  • Inclusion of the World Health Organization’s comprehensive definition of health in the Constitution, encompassing physical, mental, and social well-being.
  • Recognition of health as a fundamental right for all citizens without discrimination, through the possible insertion of a constitutional provision (such as Article 9-A) guaranteeing free or affordable health services for all citizens, ensuring access to basic necessities and the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.

Government (Federal and Provincial)

  • Allocate resources for the construction and renovation of healthcare facilities, especially in rural and underserved areas, to improve access to quality healthcare services for children.
  • Enhance primary healthcare services, maternal and child health programs, and emergency response capabilities to address the diverse health needs of children across the country.
  • Implement nutrition education programs, food fortification initiatives, and supplementation programs targeting vulnerable populations to address malnutrition and stunting among children.
  • Design population-based programs for disease prevention and health promotion, focusing on various aspects such as water, food, transport, housing, sanitation, violence prevention, and health education.
  • Ensuring access to quality healthcare services, including sexual and reproductive health, rehabilitation for the disabled, and addressing violence against women and girls.

National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs)

  • Collect and analyze data on child health indicators, including nutrition status, immunization coverage, and access to healthcare services, to identify gaps and disparities.
  • Raise awareness about children’s right to health, nutrition, and a safe environment through public campaigns, policy briefs, and advocacy efforts targeting policymakers and the general public.
  • Investigate and address health inequities affecting children, including disparities in access to healthcare services, nutrition, and sanitation facilities, to ensure every child has an equal opportunity to thrive.

Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)

  • Deliver community-based healthcare services, nutrition programs, and hygiene education initiatives to underserved populations, including remote rural communities and urban slums.
  • Advocate for policies and programs that prioritize child health, including increased funding for maternal and child health services, expansion of immunization coverage, and implementation of nutrition interventions.
  • Empower communities to take ownership of their health by providing training, resources, and support for community-led initiatives to improve child health outcomes and address local health challenges.

    Go toTop